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Body mass excess

## Description

The body mass excess, BME, is a lifestyle metric. The BME with respect to the healthy reference population, HRP, is defined as BME ΔM/M°. ΔM is the excess body mass exceeding the reference body mass, M°, in the HRP. Thus the BME is a measure of the extent to which your actual body mass, M [kg/x], deviates from M° [kg/x], which is the reference body mass [kg] per individual [x] without excess body fat. The BME is expressed relative to the reference body mass for your height, H [m]. A balanced BME is BME° = 0.0 with a band width of -0.1 towards underweight and +0.2 towards overweight. Considering a height of 1.78 m, the balanced body mass is M° = 65.9 kg per individual, and overweight is reached at a weight gain of 20 % or BME = 0.2: (1+0.2)·M° = 79 kg per individual (body mass index BMI0.2 = 24.9 kg/m2). At a height of 1.84 m, the balanced body mass is M° = 72.4 kg/x, and obesity is reached at a weight gain of 40 % or BME = 0.4:(1.4·M° = 101.4 kg/x (BMI0.4 = 29.9 kg/m2).

Abbreviation: BME

Reference: Gnaiger 2019 MiP2019

Work in progress by Gnaiger E 2020-01-20 linked to a preprint in preparation on BME and mitObesity.
Note: BME is now defined as ΔM/M° = (M-M°)/M° = M/M°-1, in contrast to our previous definition as M/M°.

## BME - the body mass excess calculator

» BME calculator
Erich Gnaiger and Paolo Cocco - last update 2020-01-07

Figure 1: Four phases of the allometric relationship between body mass, M°, and height, H, in the healthy reference population (HRP), and shift of M at body mass excess, BME, indicating underweight (BME = -0.2 and -0.1) or overweight (BME = 0.2) and increasing degrees of obesity (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, ..).
The BME calculator is based on the WHO database on children up to 10 years of age (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group, WHO MGRS 2006), and on the Committee on Biological Handbooks data set (CBH; Zimmer 1962) on adoselscents to adults (Fig. 1), according to the tables listed below. The results have to be critically evaluated. The BME calculator applies to healthy controls (except for obesity), without sarcopenia.
1. Open the BME calculator by clicking here (press Ctrl and left mouse click): BME calculator
2. Click into the field Height, H [m], and enter your height in meters [m] (not cm), using the dot (not the comma) as a separator for two decimal places. Do not enter more than two decimal places. Example: 1.70 m
3. Click into the field Body mass, M [kg/x], and enter your mass (weight) in kilograms [kg] (not pounds), using the dot (not the comma) as a separator for the decimal place. Example: 63.4 kg/x
4. Click into the field Click here for results. This activates the caclulator. Results are displayed in the fields below.
1. The body mass excess, BME, is calculated from your height and body mass. Example BME=0.1: With a BME of 0.1 you are 10 % above the reference body mass, which is well within the normal range. The percentage is calculated as BME*100.
2. For comparison with the commonly used Body mass index, BMI [kg/m2], the BMI is calculated from your body mass divided by your height squared. Example BMI=21.9 kg/m2: What does this index tell you?
3. The expected maximum aerobic exercise capacity per body mass, VO2max/M, at a BME of 0.1 is 55 mL·min-1·kg-1. The calculated VO2max/M applies to healthy adults, and does not apply to BME<0.
4. At BME=0.0, the reference body mass, M°, is calculated from your height and shows the corresponding body mass of a person from the healthy reference population. Example M°=57.7 kg/x: Compare your measured body mass of 63.4 kg/x with the reference body mass of 57.7 kg/x.
5. At BME=0.2 and 0.4, the overweight body mass, 1.2M°, and obese body mass, 1.4M°, are calculated from the reference body mass. You can compare these cutoff values with your actual body mass. Example 1.2M°=69.2 kg/x: More than 69.2 kg/x is rated as overweight for a height of 1.70 m with BME=0.2. 1.4M°=80.8 kg/x: More than 80.8 kg/x is rated as obese for a height of 1.70 m with BME=0.4.
• If you want to edit the height or body mass entered above, click into the corresponding field, delete the previously entered number, enter the new number, and click into the field Click here for results.
• Height of humans is measured with a wall-mounted statiometer.
• The body mass is measured on a calibrated balance in light underware without shoes.

## Body mass excess (BME) compared to body mass index (BMI)

• Balanced standard: BME = 0.0
• Overweight: BME > 0.2
• Obese: BME > 0.4
• The concept of BME is related to maximum ergometric capacity and mitochondrial fitness [1].
• For 0.45 to 1.26 m heights (newborns and children), the tables are based on data for WHO Child Growth Standards (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group, WHO MGRS [2, 3]) compiled from Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA, reporting as little as 3 % differences between these groups studied in affluent neighborhoods and raised in environments that do not constrain growth [2]. At the same height the body mass of girls and boys differs less than ±2 % from the common fitted curve, except for a difference of +3 % for boys at 0.70 to 0.77 m and -3 % for girls at 0.62 to 0.64 m.
• For heights of 1.27 m and above, the tables are based on the Committee on Biological Handbooks data set (CBH [4]), compiled from publications between 1931 to 1944 (Healthy reference population). These agree with WHO MGRS data at heights 1.27 to 1.4 m (children and adolescents) [3] within 1 %, and agree on noting no difference in the curves for females and males, but adult females do not reach the same height as males. Body mass and height are not different in girls and boys at the corresponding age of 8 to 10 years.

#### BME at height 0.45 - 0.62 m

Based on WHO MGRS [9]: M° = 28.60·H3.086

#### BME at height 0.63 - 1.02 m

Based on WHO MGRS [9]: M° = 15.08·H1.704

#### BME at height 1.03 - 1.26 m

Based on WHO MGRS [9]: M° = 14.89·H2.178

#### BME at height 1.27 - 2.0 m

Based on Biological Handbooks [9], extrapolated >1.8 m: M° = 12.68·H2.857
The circled numbers emphasize the precision-BMI cutoff points used for harmonization between BME cutoff points and conventional BMI cutoff values, at 1.70 m for the normal BMI of 20 kg·m-2, at 1.79 m for the overweight BMI of 25 kg·m-2, and at 1.84 m for the obese BMI of 30 kg·m-2.

## MitoPedia: BME and mitObesity

TermAbbreviationDescription
BME and mitObesity
BME cutoff pointsBME cutoffCutoff points for body mass excess, BME cutoff points, define the critical values for underweight, overweight, obesity and various degrees of obesity. BME cutoffs are calibrated by crossover-points of BME with established BMI cutoffs. The underweight and severe underweight cutoff points are BME = -0.1 and -0.2. The overweight cutoff is BME = 0.2. Increasing degrees of obesity are defined by BME cutoffs of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and above.
Body fat excessBFEBody fat is conventionally expressed as BF%, which is the percentage of body fat mass relative to the total body mass. In the healthy reference population (HRP), there is zero body fat excess, and the fraction of excess body fat in the HRP is expressed - by definition - relative to the reference body mass, M°, at any given height. Although M° is identical in females and males at any given height, the fraction of body fat is higher in females than males in the HRP, hence it is reasonable that the body fat excess, BFE, - but not BF% - represents the common risk factor and indicator of obesity. Importantly, body fat excess and body mass excess, BME, are linearly related, which is not the case for the body mass index, BMI.
Body massM [kg·x-1]The body mass, M, is the mass [kg] of an individual (object) [x] and is expressed in units [kg/x]. The individual (object) is a countable quantity, therefore, the unit [x] is a dimensionless number. The SI unit for mass (of a system), m, is [kg] (1 kg = 1000 g). A system is not a countable quantity and thus is not a number. The SI symbol m is used to indicate the mass of a system or sample [kg], whereas the symbol M is used to indicate the mass of an individual (object) [kg·x-1]. Both, body mass [kg/x] and mass of a sample [kg] are extensive quantities, which depend on the size of the individual or the sample. Whereas the body weight changes as a function of gravitational force (you are weightless at zero gravity; your floating weight in water is different from your weight in air), your mass is independent of gravitational force, and it is the same in air and water. The total body mass is the sum of lean body mass and fat mass, M = ML + MF, or the sum of the reference body mass of an individual at a given height in the healthy reference population and excess body mass, M = M° + ME. The excess body mass, in turn, is the sum of excess lean and fat mass, ME = MLE + MFE. The body mass excess, BME, is normalized for the reference body mass, BME = M/M°.
Body mass excessBMEThe body mass excess, BME, is a lifestyle metric. The BME with respect to the healthy reference population, HRP, is defined as BME ΔM/M°. ΔM is the excess body mass exceeding the reference body mass, M°, in the HRP. Thus the BME is a measure of the extent to which your actual body mass, M [kg/x], deviates from M° [kg/x], which is the reference body mass [kg] per individual [x] without excess body fat. The BME is expressed relative to the reference body mass for your height, H [m]. A balanced BME is BME° = 0.0 with a band width of -0.1 towards underweight and +0.2 towards overweight. Considering a height of 1.78 m, the balanced body mass is M° = 65.9 kg per individual, and overweight is reached at a weight gain of 20 % or BME = 0.2: (1+0.2)·M° = 79 kg per individual (body mass index BMI0.2 = 24.9 kg/m2). At a height of 1.84 m, the balanced body mass is M° = 72.4 kg/x, and obesity is reached at a weight gain of 40 % or BME = 0.4:(1.4·M° = 101.4 kg/x (BMI0.4 = 29.9 kg/m2).
Gnaiger 2019 MiP2019
Healthy reference populationHRPA healthy reference population, HRP, of zero underweight or overweight is considered as a standard population. The WHO Child Growth Standards on height and body mass are based on large samples in longitudinal (N=1737 children) and cross-sectional studies (N=6669) with similar numbers of girls and boys from Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA (1997-2003). Anthropometric studies carried out on adults since the 1960ies are prone to reflect the impact of high-caloric nutrition on allometric relationships, referring us to earlier time points for a HRP. The Committee on Biological Handbooks compiled a large dataset on height and body mass of healthy males from infancy to old age (CBH dataset, N=17523; Zucker 1962). The original studies were published between 1931 and 1944 and thus apply to a population (USA) before emergence of the fast-food and soft drink epidemic, and with a lifestyle demanding a balanced physical activity without the impact of local war or economic disaster on starvation.
Height of humansH [m]The height of humans, H, is given in SI units in meters [m]. Without further identifyer, H is considered as the standing height, measured without shoes, hair ornaments and heavy outer garments. The person is standing upright on a firm horizontally leveled surface. A small gap of 0.1 m (10 cm) is maintained between the heels of the feet which face straight ahead and arms at sides. The back of the head, shoulder blades, buttocks and heels are touching the wall-mounted statiometer. For facing straingt, the ear canal and cheek bone are level. The 90° head of the statiometer is lowered to press the hair flat. This SOP applies to mobile persons who can stand steadily for the measurement.
VO2maxVO2max; VO2max/MMaximum oxygen consumption, VO2max, is measured by spiroergometry on human and animal organisms capable of controlled physical exercise performance on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. VO2max is the maximum respiration of an organism, expressed as the volume of O2 at STPD consumed per unit of time per individual object [mL.min-1.x-1]. If normalized per body mass of the individual object, M [kg.x-1], mass specific maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max/M, is expressed in units [mL.min-1.kg-1]. For conversion to SI units of amount of oxygen consumed, VO2max is multiplied by the conversion factor of 0.744 to obtain JO2max [µmol O2∙s-1.x-1].

## References and links

1. Gnaiger E (2019) OXPHOS capacity in human muscle tissue and body mass excess – the MitoEAGLE mission towards an integrative database. 14th Conference on Mitochondrial Physiology: Mitochondrial function: changes during life cycle and in noncommunicable diseases - COST MitoEAGLE perspectives and MitoEAGLE WG and MC Meeting. Belgrade RS, 13-16 Oct 2019. - »Bioblast link«
2. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO child growth standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Pædiatrica Suppl 450:76-85. - »Bioblast link«
3. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization:312 pp. - »Bioblast link«
4. Zucker TF (1962) Regression of standing and sitting weights on body weight: man. In: Altman PL, Dittmer DS, eds: Growth including reproduction and morphological development. Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp Biol:336-7. – Anthropometry, H and M°, of the healthy reference population, HRP. - »Bioblast link«
Links

References BME

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Default sorting: chronological. Empty fields appear first in ascending order.
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Abstracts BME
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YearReferenceOrganismTissue;cellStressDiseases
Gnaiger 2019 MiP20192019
OXPHOS capacity in human muscle tissue and body mass excess – the MitoEAGLE mission towards an integrative database (Version 6; 2020-01-12).
HumanSkeletal muscleObesity

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Iwaniec 2016 J Endocrinol2016Iwaniec UT, Turner RT (2016) Influence of body weight on bone mass, architecture and turnover. J Endocrinol 230: R115-30.Human
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Gemmink 2016 Diabetologia2016Gemmink A, Bosma M, Kuijpers HJ, Hoeks J, Schaart G, van Zandvoort MA, Schrauwen P, Hesselink MK (2016) Decoration of intramyocellular lipid droplets with PLIN5 modulates fasting-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in humans. Diabetologia 59:1040-8.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Distefano 2016 J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci2016Distefano G, Standley RA, Dubé JJ, Carnero EA, Ritov VB, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Piva SR, Goodpaster BH, Coen PM (2016) Chronological age does not influence ex-vivo mitochondrial respiration and quality control in skeletal muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 72:535-42.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Tompuri 2015 Clin Physiol Funct Imaging2015Tompuri T, Lintu N, Savonen K, Laitinen T, Laaksonen D, Jääskeläinen J, Lakka TA (2015) Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in relation to measures of body size and composition among children. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 35:469-77.HumanObesity
Indian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee 2015 Indian Pediatr2015Indian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee, Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, Goyal JP, Khadilkar A, Kumaravel V, Mohan V, Narayanappa D, Ray I, Yewale V (2015) Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children. Indian Pediatr 52:47-55.HumanAging;senescence
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Coen 2015 Diabetes2015Coen PM, Menshikova EV, Distefano G, Zheng D, Tanner CJ, Standley RA, Helbling NL, Dubis GS, Ritov VB, Xie H, Desimone ME, Smith SR, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Houmard JA, Goodpaster BH (2015) Exercise and weight loss improve muscle mitochondrial respiration, lipid partitioning, and insulin sensitivity after gastric bypass surgery. Diabetes 64:3737-50.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
Irving 2015 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2015Irving BA, Lanza IR, Henderson GC, Rao RR, Spiegelman BM, Nair KS (2015) Combined training enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity independent of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:1654-63.HumanSkeletal muscle
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References MitoEAGLE VO2max/BME data base

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Default sorting: chronological. Empty fields appear first in ascending order.
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Gnaiger 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports2015Gnaiger E, Boushel R, Søndergaard H, Munch-Andersen T, Damsgaard R, Hagen C, Díez-Sánchez C, Ara I, Wright-Paradis C, Schrauwen P, Hesselink M, Calbet JAL, Christiansen M, Helge JW, Saltin B (2015) Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and caucasians in the arctic winter. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (Suppl 4):126–34.HumanSkeletal muscleTemperature
Pesta 2011 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2011Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxiaObesity
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Ponsot 2006 J Appl Physiol (1985)2006Ponsot E, Dufour SP, Zoll J, Doutrelau S, N'Guessan B, Geny B, Hoppeler H, Lampert E, Mettauer B, Ventura-Clapier R, Richard R (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. II. Improvement of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1249-57.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
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Rasmussen 2004 Comp Biochem Physiol2004Rasmussen UF, Vielwerth SE, Rasmussen HN (2004) Skeletal muscle bioenergetics: a comparative study of mitochondria isolated from pigeon pectoralis, rat soleus, rat biceps brachii, pig biceps femoris and human quadriceps. Comp Biochem Physiol A Molec Integr Physiol 137:435-46.Human
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Echaniz-Laguna 2002 Ann Neurol2002Echaniz-Laguna A, Zoll J, Ribera F, Tranchant C, Warter JM, Lonsdorfer J, Lampert E (2002) Mitochondrial respiratory chain function in skeletal muscle of ALS patients. Ann Neurol 52:623-7.HumanSkeletal muscleNeurodegenerative
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Mettauer 2001 J Am Coll Cardiol2001Mettauer B, Zoll J, Sanchez H, Lampert E, Ribera F, Veksler V, Bigard X, Mateo P, Epailly E, Lonsdorfer J, Ventura-Clapier R (2001) Oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in heart failure patients versus sedentary or active control subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol 38:947-54.HumanSkeletal muscleCardiovascular
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References VO2max

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Default sorting: chronological. Empty fields appear first in ascending order.
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Hunter 2019 J Appl Physiol2019Hunter GR, Moellering DR, Windham ST, Mathis SL, Bamman MM, Fisher G (2019) Relationship between V̇o2peak, cycle economy, and mitochondrial respiration in untrained/trained. J Appl Physiol 127:1562-8.HumanSkeletal muscle
Chroeis 2019 Eur J Sport Sci2019Chrøis KM, Dohlmann TL, Søgaard D, Hansen CV, Dela F, Helge JW, Larsen S (2019) Mitochondrial adaptations to high intensity interval training in older females and males. Eur J Sport Sci [Epub ahead of print].HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Cardinale 2019 Front Physiol2019Cardinale DA, Larsen FJ, Lännerström J, Manselin T, Södergård O, Mijwel S, Lindholm P, Ekblom B, Boushel R (2019) Influence of hyperoxic-supplemented high-intensity interval training on hemotological and muscle mitochondrial adaptations in trained cyclists. Front Physiol 10:730.HumanSkeletal muscle
Hunter 2019 J Appl Physiol (1985)2019Hunter GR, Moellering DR, Windham ST, Mathis SL, Bamman MM, Fisher G (2019) Relationship between VO2max, cycle economy & mitochondrial respiration in untrained/trained. J Appl Physiol (1985) [Epub ahead of print].HumanSkeletal muscle
Distefano 2018 J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle2018Distefano G, Standley RA, Zhang X, Carnero EA, Yi F, Cornnell HH, Coen PM (2018) Physical activity unveils the relationship between mitochondrial energetics, muscle quality, and physical function in older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 9:279-94.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Gonzalez-Freire 2018 Aging Cell2018Gonzalez-Freire M, Scalzo P, D'Agostino J, Moore ZA, Diaz-Ruiz A, Fabbri E, Zane A, Chen B, Becker KG, Lehrmann E, Zukley L, Chia CW, Tanaka T, Coen PM, Bernier M, de Cabo R, Ferrucci L (2018) Skeletal muscle ex vivo mitochondrial respiration parallels decline in vivo oxidative capacity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle strength: the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Aging Cell 17.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Robach 2018 Scand J Med Sci Sports2018Robach P, Hansen J, Pichon A, Meinild Lundby AK, Dandanell S, Slettaløkken Falch G, Hammarström D, Pesta DH, Siebenmann C, Keiser S, Kérivel P, Whist JE, Rønnestad BR, Lundby C (2018) Hypobaric live high-train low does not improve aerobic performance more than live low-train low in cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28:1636-52.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
Lund 2018 Acta Physiol (Oxf)2018Lund MT, Larsen S, Hansen M, Courraud J, Floyd AK, Støckel M, Helge JW, Dela F (2018) Mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains stable despite a comprehensive and sustained increase in insulin sensitivity in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 223:e13032.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Obesity
Allard 2018 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2018Allard NAE, Schirris TJJ, Verheggen RJ, Russel FGM, Rodenburg RJ, Smeitink JAM, Thompson PD, Hopman MTE, Timmers S (2018) Statins affect skeletal muscle performance: evidence for disturbances in energy metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 103:75-84.HumanSkeletal muscleMyopathy
Lalia 2017 Aging (Albany NY)2017Lalia AZ, Dasari S, Robinson MM, Abid H, Morse DM, Klaus KA, Lanza IR (2017) Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on skeletal muscle protein metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics in older adults. Aging (Albany NY) 9:1096-1129.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Goedecke 2017 JMIR Res Protoc2017Goedecke JH, Mendham AE, Clamp L, Nono Nankam PA, Fortuin-de Smidt MC, Phiri L, Micklesfield LK, Keswell D, Woudberg NJ, Lecour S, Alhamud A, Kaba M, Lutomia FM, van Jaarsveld PJ, de Villiers A, Kahn SE, Chorell E, Hauksson J, Olsson T (2017) An exercise intervention to unravel the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in a cohort of black South African women: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Res Protoc 03/10/2017:9098.HumanSkeletal muscle
Fat
Diabetes
Obesity
Kenny 2017 Diabetologia2017Kenny HC, Rudwill F, Breen L, Salanova M, Blottner D, Heise T, Heer M, Blanc S, O'Gorman DJ (2017) Bed rest and resistive vibration exercise unveil novel links between skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and insulin resistance. Diabetologia 60:1491-501.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Wu 2017 Sci Rep2017Wu LH, Chang SC, Fu TC, Huang CH, Wang JS (2017) High-intensity interval training improves mitochondrial function and suppresses thrombin generation in platelets undergoing hypoxic stress. Sci Rep 7:4191.HumanBlood cells
Platelet
Hypoxia
Greggio 2017 Cell Metab2017Greggio C, Jha P, Kulkarni SS, Lagarrigue S, Broskey NT, Boutant M, Wang X, Conde Alonso S, Ofori E, Auwerx J, Cantó C, Amati F (2017) Enhanced respiratory chain supercomplex formation in response to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Cell Metab 25:301-11.HumanSkeletal muscle
Mondal 2017 J Clin Diagn Res2017Mondal H, Mishra SP (2017) Effect of BMI, body fat percentage and fat free mass on maximal oxygen consumption in healthy young adults. J Clin Diagn Res 11:CC17-20.HumanObesity
Nabben 2017 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2017Nabben M, Schmitz JP, Ciapaite J, Le Clercq CM, van Riel NA, Haak HR, Nicolay K, de Coo IF, Smeets HJ, Praet SF, van Loon LJ, Prompers JJ (2017) Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 312:689-701.HumanSkeletal muscleMyopathy
Asping 2017 Eur J Clin Pharmacol2017Asping M, Stride N, Søgaard D, Dohlmann TL, Helge JW, Dela F, Larsen S (2017) The effects of 2 weeks of statin treatment on mitochondrial respiratory capacity in middle-aged males: the LIFESTAT study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 73:679-87.Human
Johnson 2016 Diabetes2016Johnson ML, Distelmaier K, Lanza IR, Irving BA, Robinson MM, Konopka AR, Shulman GI, Nair KS (2016) Mechanism by which caloric restriction improves insulin sensitivity in sedentary obese adults. Diabetes 65:74-84.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Obesity
Spendiff 2016 J Physiol2016Spendiff S, Vuda M, Gouspillou G, Aare S, Perez A, Morais JA, Jagoe RT, Filion ME, Glicksman R, Kapchinsky S, MacMillan NJ, Pion CH, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Hettwer S, Correa JA, Taivassalo T, Hepple RT (2016) Denervation drives mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of octogenarians. J Physiol 594:7361-79.Human
Mouse
Skeletal musclePermeability transitionAging;senescence
Myopathy
Lalia 2016 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2016Lalia AZ, Dasari S, Johnson ML, Robinson MM, Konopka AR, Distelmaier K, Port JD, Glavin MT, Esponda RR, Nair KS, Lanza IR (2016) Predictors of whole-body insulin sensitivity across ages and adiposity in adult humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 101:626-34.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Diabetes
Obesity
Gemmink 2016 Diabetologia2016Gemmink A, Bosma M, Kuijpers HJ, Hoeks J, Schaart G, van Zandvoort MA, Schrauwen P, Hesselink MK (2016) Decoration of intramyocellular lipid droplets with PLIN5 modulates fasting-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in humans. Diabetologia 59:1040-8.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Tam 2016 Eur J Appl Physiol2016Tam E, Bruseghini P, Calabria E, Sacco LD, Doria C, Grassi B, Pietrangelo T, Pogliaghi S, Reggiani C, Salvadego D, Schena F, Toniolo L, Verratti V, Vernillo G, Capelli C (2016) Gokyo Khumbu/Ama Dablam Trek 2012: effects of physical training and high-altitude exposure on oxidative metabolism, muscle composition, and metabolic cost of walking in women. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:129-44.HumanSkeletal muscle
Salvadego 2016 J Appl Physiol (1985)2016Salvadego D, Keramidas ME, Brocca L, Domenis R, Mavelli I, Rittweger J, Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Grassi B (2016) Separate and combined effects of a 10-d exposure to hypoxia and inactivity on oxidative function in vivo and mitochondrial respiration ex vivo in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 121:154-63.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservation
Hypoxia
Gnaiger 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports2015Gnaiger E, Boushel R, Søndergaard H, Munch-Andersen T, Damsgaard R, Hagen C, Díez-Sánchez C, Ara I, Wright-Paradis C, Schrauwen P, Hesselink M, Calbet JAL, Christiansen M, Helge JW, Saltin B (2015) Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and caucasians in the arctic winter. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (Suppl 4):126–34.HumanSkeletal muscleTemperature
Boushel 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports2015Boushel R, Gnaiger E, Larsen FJ, Helge JW, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Ara I, Munch-Andersen T, van Hall G, Søndergaard H, Saltin B, Calbet JAL (2015) Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (Suppl 4):135–43.HumanSkeletal muscle
Irving 2015 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2015Irving BA, Lanza IR, Henderson GC, Rao RR, Spiegelman BM, Nair KS (2015) Combined training enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity independent of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:1654-63.HumanSkeletal muscle
Tompuri 2015 Clin Physiol Funct Imaging2015Tompuri T, Lintu N, Savonen K, Laitinen T, Laaksonen D, Jääskeläinen J, Lakka TA (2015) Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in relation to measures of body size and composition among children. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 35:469-77.HumanObesity
Coen 2015 Diabetes2015Coen PM, Menshikova EV, Distefano G, Zheng D, Tanner CJ, Standley RA, Helbling NL, Dubis GS, Ritov VB, Xie H, Desimone ME, Smith SR, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Houmard JA, Goodpaster BH (2015) Exercise and weight loss improve muscle mitochondrial respiration, lipid partitioning, and insulin sensitivity after gastric bypass surgery. Diabetes 64:3737-50.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
Gifford 2015 J Physiol2015Gifford JR, Garten RS, Nelson AD, Trinity JD, Layec G, Witman MA, Weavil JC, Mangum T, Hart C, Etheredge C, Jessop J, Bledsoe A, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2015) Symmorphosis and skeletal muscle VO2max: in vivo and in vitro measures reveal differing constraints in the exercise-trained and untrained human. J Physiol 594:1741-51.HumanSkeletal muscle
Ludzki 2015 Diabetes2015Ludzki A, Paglialunga S, Smith BK, Herbst EA, Allison MK, Heigenhauser GJ, Neufer PD, Holloway GP (2015) Rapid repression of ADP transport by palmitoyl-CoA is attenuated by exercise training in humans; a potential mechanism to decrease oxidative stress and improve skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Diabetes 64:2769-79.Human
Mouse
Skeletal muscleDiabetes
Van de Weijer 2015 Diabetes2015van de Weijer T, Phielix E, Bilet L, Williams EG, Ropelle ER, Bierwagen A, Livingstone R, Nowotny P, Sparks LM, Paglialunga S, Szendroedi J, Havekes B, Moullan N, Pirinen E, Hwang JH, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Hesselink MK, Auwerx J, Roden M, Schrauwen P (2015) Evidence for a direct effect of the NAD+ precursor acipimox on muscle mitochondrial function in humans. Diabetes 64:1193-201.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Dube 2014 Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab2014Dube JJ, Coen PM, DiStefano G, Chacon AC, Helbling NL, Desimone ME, Stafanovic-Racic M, Hames KC, Despines AA, Toledo FG, Goodpaster BH (2014) Effects of acute lipid overload on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, metabolic flexibility, and mitochondrial performance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 307:E1117-24.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Broskey 2014 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2014Broskey NT, Greggio C, Boss A, Boutant M, Dwyer A, Schlueter L, Hans D, Gremion G, Kreis R, Boesch C, Canto AC, Amati F (2014) Skeletal muscle mitochondria in the elderly: effects of physical fitness and exercise training. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:1852-61.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservationAging;senescence
Ludzki 2014 Thesis2014Ludzki AC (2014) Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is attenuated by exercise training in human skeletal muscle. Master's Thesis 1-86.Human
Mouse
Skeletal muscle
Gram 2014 Exp Gerontol2014Gram M, Vigelsoe A, Yokota T, Hansen CN, Helge JW, Hey-Mogensen M, Dela F (2014) Two weeks of one-leg immobilization decreases skeletal muscle 2 respiratory capacity equally in young and elderly men. Exp Gerontol 58C:269-78.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Dlugosz 2013 J Exp Biol2013Dlugosz EM, Chappell MA, Meek TH, Szafranska PA, Zub K, Konarzewski M, Jones JH, Bicudo JE, Nespolo RF, Careau V, Garland T Jr (2013) Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian maximal oxygen consumption during exercise. J Exp Biol 216:4712-21.
Dagan 2013 Nutr J2013Dagan SS, Segev S, Novikov I, Dankner R (2013) Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects. Nutr J 12:12.Human
Setty 2013 Int J Med Sci Public Health2013Setty P, Padmanabha BV, Doddamani BR (2013) Correlation between obesity and cardio respiratory fitness. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2:300-4.HumanObesity
Loe 2013 PLOS ONE2013Loe H, Rognmo Ø, Saltin B, Wisløff U (2013) Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years. PLOS ONE 8:e64319.Human
Afolabi 2013 Int J Sci Engin Res2013Afolabi BO, Akanbi OG (2013) Effects of body mass index on aerobic power (VO2max) and energy expenditure (EE): a case of manual load lifting in agro-processing. Int J Sci Engin Res 4:1718-21.Human
Phielix 2012 Diabetes2012Phielix E, Meex R, Ouwens DM, Sparks LM, Hoeks J, Schaart G, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Schrauwen P (2012) High oxidative capacity due to chronic exercise training attenuates lipid-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes 61:2472-8.HumanSkeletal muscleMitochondrial diseaseDiabetes
Pesta 2011 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2011Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxiaObesity
Chomentowski 2011 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2011Chomentowski P, Coen PM, Radiková Z, Goodpaster BH, Toledo FG (2011) Skeletal muscle mitochondria in insulin resistance: Differences in intermyofibrillar versus subsarcolemmal subpopulations and relationship to metabolic flexibility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: 494-503.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Obesity
Timmers 2011 Cell Metab2011Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, Hoeks J, van der Krieken S, Ryu D, Kersten S, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Kunz I, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Blaak EE, Auwerx J, Schrauwen P (2011) Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans. Cell Metab 14:612-22.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
So 2010 J Sports Sci Med2010So WY, Choi DH (2010) Differences in physical fitness and cardiovascular function depend on BMI in Korean men. J Sports Sci Med 9:239-44.Human
Kodama 2009 JAMA2009Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S, Maki M, Yachi Y, Asumi M, Sugawara A, Totsuka K, Shimano H, Ohashi Y, Yamada N, Sone H (2009) Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA 301:2024-35.HumanCardiovascular
Obesity
Nakhostin-Roohi 2008 J Sports Med Phys Fitness2008Nakhostin-Roohi B, Niknam Z (2008) BMI, fat percentage and VO2max in college female staff. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 48:211-6.Human
Brien 2007 Can J Public Health2007Brien SE, Katzmarzyk PT, Craig CL, Gauvin L (2007) Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index as predictors of substantial weight gain and obesity: the Canadian physical activity longitudinal study. Can J Public Health 98:121-4..HumanObesity
Rabinovich 2007 Eur Respir J2007Rabinovich RA, Bastos R, Ardite E, Llinàs L, Orozco-Levi M, Gea J, Vilaró J, Barberà JA, Rodríguez-Roisin R, Fernández-Checa JC, Roca J (2007) Mitochondrial dysfunction in COPD patients with low body mass index. Eur Respir J 29:643-50.HumanSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS
Dufour 2006 J Appl Physiol (1985)2006Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Zoll J, Doutreleau S, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Geny B, Lampert E, Flück M, Hoppeler H, Billat V, Mettauer B, Richard R, Lonsdorfer J (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. I. Improvement in aerobic performance capacity. J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1238-48.HumanHypoxia
Ponsot 2006 J Appl Physiol (1985)2006Ponsot E, Dufour SP, Zoll J, Doutrelau S, N'Guessan B, Geny B, Hoppeler H, Lampert E, Mettauer B, Ventura-Clapier R, Richard R (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. II. Improvement of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1249-57.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
Weibel 2005 J Exp Biol2005Weibel ER, Hoppeler H (2005) Exercise-induced maximal metabolic rate scales with muscle aerobic capacity. J Exp Biol 208:1635-44.Skeletal muscle
N'Guessan 2004 Mol Cell Biochem2004N'Guessan B, Zoll J, Ribera F, Ponsot E, Lampert E, Ventura-Clapier R, Veksler V, Mettauer B (2004) Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in human skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mol Cell Biochem 256-257:267-80.HumanSkeletal muscle
Weibel 2004 Respir Physiol Neurobiol2004Weibel ER, Bacigalupe LD, Schmitt B, Hoppeler H (2004) Allometric scaling of maximal metabolic rate in mammals: muscle aerobic capacity as determinant factor. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 140:115-32.Skeletal muscle
Wei 1999 JAMA1999Wei M, Kampert JB, Barlow CE, Nichaman MZ, Gibbons LW, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Blair SN (1999) Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men. JAMA 282:1547-53.HumanCardiovascular
Diabetes
Obesity

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