Coen 2017 MiP2017 B1
Coen P (2017)
There are considerable negative health consequences associated with excess weight, to the extent that obesity has recently been classified as a disease. Calorie restriction can induce weight loss and improve peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, an important aspect of metabolic health in obesity. Exercise can also improve insulin sensitivity and when combined with calorie restriction is an important factor in weight loss maintenance.
Both exercise and calorie restriction are also excellent physiological tools to investigate the relationships between mitochondrial metabolism and insulin sensitivity. It has been shown recently that calorie restriction alone does not affect mitochondrial content, electron transport chain activity or fatty acid oxidation enzyme activities. Exercise on the other hand, potently increases mitochondrial biogenesis and improves fat oxidation. The implications are that either a decreased energy supply through calorie restriction induced weight loss or an increase in energy demand by exercise can promote beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, providing further evidence that obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle can be caused by either excessive influx of nutrients or reduced energy expenditure, physical inactivity or lack of exercise.
Herein, we review current thinking on calorie restriction induced weight loss and exercise as two distinct clinical interventions that can improve insulin sensitivity despite very different effects on skeletal muscle mitochondria biogenesis and performance.
• Bioblast editor: Kandolf G
Labels: MiParea: mt-Biogenesis;mt-density, Exercise physiology;nutrition;life style Pathology: Obesity
- Translational Research Inst Metabolism Diabetes, Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida, USA. - [email protected]