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From Bioblast

high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution



ET-pathway level 2 is supported by duroquinol DQ feeding electrons into Complex III (CIII) with further electron transfer to CIV and oxygen. Upstream pathways are inhibited by rotenone and malonic acid in the absence of other substrates linked to ET-pathways with entry into the Q-junction.

Abbreviation: DQ

Reference: Gnaiger 2020 MitoPathways

Application in HRR

Communicated by Axelrod Christopher L 2022-07-06
We buy tetramethylhydroquinone (duroquinol) manufactured by TCI. This can be purchased directly from TCI ( or from Fisher Scientific (
DQ should be stored at room temperature protected from light. The stock solution needs to be prepared fresh for each experiment. We prepare a 0.1 M stock solution and inject to a final concentration of 1 mM. Depending on the tissue, this can be decreased to 0.5 mM.
Normally, we titrate FCCP in the presence of DQ to determine CIII-linked ET capacity. Depending on the tissue kinetics, this may need to occur immediately once the peak has been obtained (similar to As/Tm).
We have extensively validated this product against the DQ synthesized by our group - it works very well.

MitoPedia O2k and high-resolution respirometry: O2k-Respirometry 

MitoPedia topics: Substrate and metabolite