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SUIT-021 Fluo mt D036

From Bioblast

high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution

SUIT-021 Fluo mt D036



Abbreviation: NS(GM)

Reference: A: short protocol for simultaneous determination of O2 flux and mitochondrial membrane potential in mitochondrial preparations (isolated mitochondria, permeabilized cells, and tissue homogenate)-SUIT-021

SUIT number: D036_1GM;2D;3S;4Rot;5Omy;6U;7Ama

O2k-Application: Fluo

SUIT-category: NS(GM)
SUIT protocol pattern: orthogonal 1GM;2D;3S;4Rot;5Omy;6U-

SUIT-021 Fluo mt D036 is a protocol to assess the additivity between N-pathway and S- pathway in the Q-junction and to investigate the N- and NS-pathway control state in mitochondrial preparations. Addition of GM (Glutamate & Malate) to the mitochondria leads to hyperpolarisation of the mt-membrane, while ADP (D) decreases the mt-membrane potential. Succinate (S) is able to further increase the mt-membrane potential. Rotenone, which is an inhibitor of Complex I, depolarises the mt-membrane. Oligomycin (Omy) is used to induce a LEAK state of respiration through inhibition of the ATP synthase. Since higher concentrations of Omy can decrease the ET state induced upon addition of uncoupler, the required concentration of Omy has to be determined. Addition of Omy results in hyperpolarisation owing to the fact that the inhibition of the ATP synthase leads to accumulation of protons in the intermembrane space. Uncoupler depolarises the mt-membrane in a concentration-dependent manner. Complex III inhibitor Antimycin (Ama) blocks the respiration. Antimycin A dissipates mt-membrane potential. For mt-membrane potential analysis and calculation, visit this page: Mitochondrial membrane potential.

Communicated by Huete-Ortega M, Komlodi T and Gnaiger E  (last update 2019-07-05)  

Representative traces

SUIT-020 Fluo mt D036 O2 DL-File.png SUIT-020 Fluo mt D036 DL-File.png

MitoPedia: SUIT

Steps and respiratory states


Step State Pathway Q-junction Comment - Events (E) and Marks (M)
  • Respiratory stimulation by simultaneous action of type N substrates & succinate, with convergent electron flow in the NS-pathway for reconstitution of TCA cycle function.
  • OXPHOS capacity P (with saturating [ADP]), active OXPHOS state.
4Rot SP S CII 1GM;2D;3S;4Rot
5Omy SL(Omy) 1GM;2D;3S;4Rot;5Omy
  • Non-phosphorylating resting state (LEAK state); LEAK-respiration, L(Omy), after blocking the ATP synthase with oligomycin.
6U* SE S CII 1GM;2D;3S;4Rot;5Omy;6U
7Ama ROX 1GM;2D;3S;4Rot;5Omy;6U;7Ama
  • Rox is the residual oxygen consumption in the ROX state, due to oxidative side reactions, estimated after addition of antimycin A (inhibitor of CIII). Rox is subtracted from oxygen flux as a baseline for all respiratory states, to obtain mitochondrial respiration (mt).


Click to expand or collaps

Strengths and limitations

  • Before performing this protocol, calibration with the fluorescence dye needs to be done. More information on our USB: Instrumental Protocols/Fluo calibration.
  • It is recommended to run a chemical background assay without any sample to test the effect of the chemicals on the fluorescence signal. More information on our USB.
  • NS-OXPHOS capacity provides a physiologically relevant estimate of maximum mitochondrial respiratory capacity.
  • Comparison of GM- with PM-capacity yields important information on N-pathway respiratory control upstream of CI.
  • A succinate concentration of >10 mM may be required for saturating SE capacity.
  • Nigericin as a H+/K+ antiporter can be used to dissipate transmembrane pH gradient, which results in increased mt-membrane potential in the LEAK state.
+ You obtain information in a single protocol about the NS-, S and N- pathway control state.
- Many fluorescence dyes (such as Safranin, TMRM etc) can inhibit components of the ET system, most commonly affecting NADH-linked respiration. Therefore, a control run of the protocol should be done in the absence of the fluorescence dye. The following protocol can be used: SUIT-021 O2 mt D035.
- To test the effect of the fluorescence dye on the respiration, in SUIT-020_O2_mt_D032 and SUIT-020_O2_mt_D035 the dye can be added after cytochrome c.
- CIV activity cannot be determined and Cytochrome c test cannot be performed together with the fluorescence dyes.
- Oligomycin concentration has to be determined. Higher concentrations of Omy may inhibit the ET state.
- Careful washing is required after the experiment to avoid carry-over of the inhibitors and uncoupler.

Compare SUIT protocols

  • SUIT-004;SUIT-004 O2 pfi D010: provides information about the NS(PM) pathway in the ET state without the contribution of G.
  • SUIT-008;SUIT-008 O2 pfi D014 and SUIT-008 O2 pce D025: provide information about the NS(PGM) pathway in the OXPHOS and ET-states, but without the addition of Omy.
  • SUIT-011: provides information about the NS(GM) pathway in the OXPHOS and ET-states, but without the addtion of Omy.
  • SUIT-012: provides information about the N(PGM) pathway in the OXPHOS and ET-states without the contribution of S-pathway and without the addition of Omy.
  • SUIT-014: a protocol similar to SUIT-021 O2 mt D035, but with the addition of P in the OXPHOS state before S. Omy is not added in the protocol.

Chemicals and syringes

Step Chemical(s) and link(s) Comments
Saf Safranin (Saf)


Step Chemical(s) and link(s) Comments
TMRM Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM)


Step Chemical(s) and link(s) Comments
Rh123 Rhodamine 123
Step Chemical(s) and link(s) Comments
1GM Glutamate (G) and Malate (M)
2D ADP (D)
3S Succinate (S)
4Rot Rotenone (Rot)
5Omy Oligomycin (Omy)
6U Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, CCCP (U) Can be substituted for other uncoupler
7Ama Antimycin A (Ama)
Suggested stock concentrations are shown in the specific DL-Protocol.


MiPNet20.13 Safranin mt-membranepotential2019-06-24
O2k-FluoRespirometry: HRR and simultaneous determination of mt-membrane potential with safranin or TMRM.
MouseNervous system
Krumschnabel 2014 Methods Enzymol2014Krumschnabel G, Eigentler A, Fasching M, Gnaiger E (2014) Use of safranin for the assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential by high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry. system

MitoPedia concepts: SUIT protocol, SUIT A, Find 

MitoPedia methods: Fluorometry