Sváb 2021 Antioxidants (Basel)
|Svàb G, Kokas M, Sipos I, Ambrus A, Tretter L (2021) Methylene blue bridges the inhibition and produces unusual respiratory changes in Complex III-inhibited mitochondria. Studies on rats, mice and guinea pigs. Antioxidants (Basel) 10:305.
Abstract: Methylene blue (MB) is used in human therapy in various pathological conditions. Its effects in neurodegenerative disease models are promising. MB acts on multiple cellular targets and mechanisms, but many of its potential beneficial effects are ascribed to be mitochondrial. According to the "alternative electron transport" hypothesis, MB is capable of donating electrons to cytochrome c bypassing complex I and III. As a consequence of this, the deleterious effects of the inhibitors of complex I and III can be ameliorated by MB. Recently, the beneficial effects of MB exerted on complex III-inhibited mitochondria were debated. In the present contribution, several pieces of evidence are provided towards that MB is able to reduce cytochrome c and improve bioenergetic parameters, like respiration and membrane potential, in mitochondria treated with complex III inhibitors, either antimycin or myxothiazol. These conclusions were drawn from measurements for mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, NAD(P)H steady state, MB uptake and MB-cytochrome c oxidoreduction. In the presence of MB and complex III inhibitors, unusual respiratory reactions, like decreased oxygen consumption as a response to ADP addition as well as stimulation of respiration upon administration of inhibitors of ATP synthase or ANT, were observed. Qualitatively identical results were obtained in three rodent species. The actual metabolic status of mitochondria is well reflected in the distribution of MB amongst various compartments of this organelle.
• O2k-Network Lab: HU Budapest Tretter L