Difference between revisions of "Fatty acid oxidation"

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{{MitoPedia
 
{{MitoPedia
 
|abbr=FAO
 
|abbr=FAO
|description='''Fatty acid oxidation''' (β-oxidation) is a multi-step process by which [[fatty acid]]s are broken down to generate acetyl-CoA, NADH and FADH<sub>2</sub> for further energy production. Fatty acids (short chain with 4–8, medium-chain with 6–12, long chain with 14-22 carbon atoms) are activated by fatty acyl-CoA synthases (thiokinases) in the cytosol. The outer mt-membrane enzyme [[carnitine palmitoyltransferase I]] (CPT 1) generates an acyl-carnitine intermediate for transport into the mt-matrix. [[Octanoate]], but not [[palmitate]], (eight- and 16-carbon saturated fatty acids) may pass the mt-membranes, but both are frequently supplied to mt-preparations in the activated form of [[octanoylcarnitine]] or [[palmitoylcarnitine]].
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|description='''Fatty acid oxidation''' (β-oxidation) is a multi-step process by which [[fatty acid]]s are broken down to generate acetyl-CoA, NADH and FADH<sub>2</sub> for further energy transformation. Fatty acids (short chain with 4–8, medium-chain with 6–12, long chain with 14-22 carbon atoms) are activated by fatty acyl-CoA synthases (thiokinases) in the cytosol. The mt-outer membrane enzyme [[carnitine palmitoyltransferase I]] (CPT 1) generates an acyl-carnitine intermediate for transport into the mt-matrix. [[Octanoate]], but not [[palmitate]], (eight- and 16-carbon saturated fatty acids) may pass the mt-membranes, but both are frequently supplied to mt-preparations in the activated form of [[octanoylcarnitine]] or [[palmitoylcarnitine]]. [[Electron-transferring flavoprotein complex]] (CETF) is located on the matrix face of the mt-inner membrane, and supplies electrons from fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) to CoQ.
 
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|info=[[Gnaiger 2019 MitoPathways]]
[[Electron-transferring flavoprotein complex]] (CETF) is located on the matrix face of the inner mt-membrane, and supplies electrons from fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) to CoQ. FAO cannot proceed without a substrate combination of fatty acids & [[malate]], and inhibition of CI blocks FAO completely. Fatty acids are split stepwise into two carbon fragments forming acetyl-CoA, which enters the TCA cycle by condensation with oxaloacetate (CS reaction). Therefore, FAO implies simultaneous electron transfer into the [[Q-junction]] through CETF and CI.
 
|info=[[Gnaiger 2014 MitoPathways]]
 
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|mitopedia method=Respirometry
 
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|mitopedia topic=Substrate and metabolite
 
 
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{{Technical support integrated}}
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[[Talk:Fatty acid oxidation]]
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== FAO and [[HRR]] ==
  
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:::: FAO cannot proceed without a substrate combination of fatty acids & [[malate]], and inhibition of CI blocks FAO completely. Fatty acids are split stepwise into two carbon fragments forming acetyl-CoA, which enters the TCA cycle by condensation with oxaloacetate (CS reaction). Therefore, FAO implies simultaneous electron transfer into the [[Q-junction]] through CETF and CI.
  
== FAO and [[HRR]] ==
 
{{Technical support integrated}} [[Talk:Fatty acid oxidation]]
 
 
:::: Studies with FAO in mt-preparations are conducted with mitochondrial respiration media (MiR05Cr, [[MiR06]], etc.) with fatty acid-free [[BSA]] <ref> Lemieux H, Semsroth S, Antretter H, Höfer D, Gnaiger E (2011) Mitochondrial respiratory control and early defects of oxidative phosphorylation in the failing human heart. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43:1729–38. [[Lemieux 2011 Int J Biochem Cell Biol |»Bioblast Access«]] </ref>, <ref> Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87. [[Pesta 2011 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol |»Open Access«]] </ref>, <ref> Pesta D, Gnaiger E (2012) High-resolution respirometry. OXPHOS protocols for human cells and permeabilized fibres from small biopsies of human muscle. Methods Mol Biol 810:25-58. [[Pesta 2012 Methods Mol Biol |»Bioblast Access«]] </ref>.
 
:::: Studies with FAO in mt-preparations are conducted with mitochondrial respiration media (MiR05Cr, [[MiR06]], etc.) with fatty acid-free [[BSA]] <ref> Lemieux H, Semsroth S, Antretter H, Höfer D, Gnaiger E (2011) Mitochondrial respiratory control and early defects of oxidative phosphorylation in the failing human heart. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43:1729–38. [[Lemieux 2011 Int J Biochem Cell Biol |»Bioblast Access«]] </ref>, <ref> Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87. [[Pesta 2011 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol |»Open Access«]] </ref>, <ref> Pesta D, Gnaiger E (2012) High-resolution respirometry. OXPHOS protocols for human cells and permeabilized fibres from small biopsies of human muscle. Methods Mol Biol 810:25-58. [[Pesta 2012 Methods Mol Biol |»Bioblast Access«]] </ref>.
 
    
 
    
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:» [[Talk:Fatty acid oxidation |O2k-Network discussion forum: fatty acids used in permeabilized fibre assays]]
 
:» [[Talk:Fatty acid oxidation |O2k-Network discussion forum: fatty acids used in permeabilized fibre assays]]
 
:» [[F-pathway control state]]
 
:» [[F-pathway control state]]
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Latest revision as of 14:11, 7 November 2019

Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
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MitoPedia

Fatty acid oxidation

Description

Fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation) is a multi-step process by which fatty acids are broken down to generate acetyl-CoA, NADH and FADH2 for further energy transformation. Fatty acids (short chain with 4–8, medium-chain with 6–12, long chain with 14-22 carbon atoms) are activated by fatty acyl-CoA synthases (thiokinases) in the cytosol. The mt-outer membrane enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT 1) generates an acyl-carnitine intermediate for transport into the mt-matrix. Octanoate, but not palmitate, (eight- and 16-carbon saturated fatty acids) may pass the mt-membranes, but both are frequently supplied to mt-preparations in the activated form of octanoylcarnitine or palmitoylcarnitine. Electron-transferring flavoprotein complex (CETF) is located on the matrix face of the mt-inner membrane, and supplies electrons from fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) to CoQ.

Abbreviation: FAO

Reference: Gnaiger 2019 MitoPathways

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O2k-Open Support


MitoPedia O2k and high-resolution respirometry: O2k-Open Support 

Talk:Fatty acid oxidation

FAO and HRR

FAO cannot proceed without a substrate combination of fatty acids & malate, and inhibition of CI blocks FAO completely. Fatty acids are split stepwise into two carbon fragments forming acetyl-CoA, which enters the TCA cycle by condensation with oxaloacetate (CS reaction). Therefore, FAO implies simultaneous electron transfer into the Q-junction through CETF and CI.
Studies with FAO in mt-preparations are conducted with mitochondrial respiration media (MiR05Cr, MiR06, etc.) with fatty acid-free BSA [1], [2], [3].
The use of fatty-acid free BSA is very important when providing fatty acids in vitro, to buffer the free FA concentration and thus avoid FFA toxicity [4].
Gnaiger E, 2015-05-15


SUITbrowser question: Fatty acid oxidation

SUIT protocols can assess the respiration stimulated by fatty acid oxidation, with the participation of the electron-transferring flavoprotein complex.
The SUITbrowser can be used to find the best SUIT protocols to answer this and other research questions.

References

  1. Lemieux H, Semsroth S, Antretter H, Höfer D, Gnaiger E (2011) Mitochondrial respiratory control and early defects of oxidative phosphorylation in the failing human heart. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43:1729–38. »Bioblast Access«
  2. Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87. »Open Access«
  3. Pesta D, Gnaiger E (2012) High-resolution respirometry. OXPHOS protocols for human cells and permeabilized fibres from small biopsies of human muscle. Methods Mol Biol 810:25-58. »Bioblast Access«
  4. Oliveira AF, Cunha DA, Ladriere L, Igoillo-Esteve M, Bugliani M, Marchetti P, Cnop M (2015) In vitro use of free fatty acids bound to albumin: A comparison of protocols. Biotechniques 58:228-33. »Open Access«
» O2k-Network discussion forum: fatty acids used in permeabilized fibre assays
» F-pathway control state


MitoPedia methods: Respirometry 


MitoPedia topics: Substrate and metabolite